Dear guest hunter

Hungary has an outstanding role in the European hunting tourism. This is indicated by the high number of guest hunters who visit our country, by the skill of their Hungarian hosts, and by the high quality of wildlife and game that live here.

It is our responsibility to provide help and accurate information for the hunters visiting our country. For that purpose the two ministries (Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development and Ministry of Environment and Water) that currently administer hunting and nature conservation in Hungary have decided to prepare this up-to-date and correct guide for foreign hunters.

This guide summarises the hunting regulations in Hungary, and helps our guest hunters to understand Hungarian hunting customs. It contains many useful information for our prospective guest hunters about the organisation of their hunting tours, the Hungarian hunting seasons, the descriptions of animal species, the evaluation and export of trophies.

The idea of sustainable use of natural resources, including game stock, has become a widely accepted principle and it is increasingly involved in practical management. The protection of natural values is important to local as well as foreign hunters. Due to our more restrictive rules, however, the lists of protected and huntable species in Hungary differ somewhat from those proposed by international agreements. Thus, here we give an introduction to our huntable species and to those protected species that can easily be confused with the huntable ones. This guide does not include those species, however, that may be familiar to most hunters (e.g. pheasant, partridge) or may not be of importance for guest hunters (e.g. magpie, hooded crow), since there usually were no problem with the hunting of these species.

The goal of this guide is to give a set of useful information, which may help to learn and observe regulations of hunting and nature conservation in Hungary. By providing these information we would like to precede occasional contraventions; both hunting and conservation offices prefer prevention to penalty in Hungary.

The "nature conservation value" of the protected species is a juristic category in Hungary regulated by low, and when hunters kill a protected species this value may be included in the penalty. Penalty is more serious in the case of killing specially threatened species (e.g. ferruginous duck, lesser white-fronted goose); killing these species is considered a crime in Hungary. Of course, visitors who fail to keep the regulations should be penalised.

Therefore, we suggest you to read this brief guide carefully, and we also ask you to observe the Hungarian hunting rules and nature conservation rules during your hunts!

Hungary - as always - welcome our guest hunters from abroad!

Ministry of Environment and Water Ministry of Agriculture and Nature Conservation Office Regional Development,

Department of Game management and Fishery

1. The order of hunting in Hungary

Hungarian hunting rules and conditions are regulated by the law 1996/LV (laws for the protection of game, game management and hunting; abbreviated to hunting law or VTv thereafter). The regulations of VTv are in accordance with other laws regulating forestry (law 1996/LIV) and nature conservation (law 1996/LIII) in Hungary.

Hunters always must observe the above mentioned law. Hunters may participate in a hunting event on their own responsibility. They are liable to follow the orders of the persons who bear the responsibility of the hunting (leader of the hunt, accompanying host hunter).

2. Conditions of hunting in Hungary for foreign citizens

2.1. Personal conditions

Hunting is allowed in Hungary to every foreign citizen who is at least 18 years old, has a valid hunting weapon license, and has a valid hunting license obtained from the Hungarian hunting authority.

2.1.1. Who can obtain a hunting license?

Hunting license can be obtained by foreign citizens at least 18 years of age, and having:

  • a hunting weapon license (or license for keeping hunting-bow or birds of prey) that is valid in his or her own country
  • a valid hunting contract or a letter of invitation for guest hunting
  • a license for the import of the hunting weapon (or hunting-bow or birds of prey) or EU passport for hunting weapon
  • a valid hunter's liability insurance for compensating the occasional damages caused during the hunting

Foreign citizens may hunt in Hungary through a hunting contract. The contract is made by the registered hunting company. Only written contracts can be accepted as a valid one. Thus, the registered hunting company that organises the tour has to mail to the guest a letter of invitation (Appendix 1).

At the Hungarian border station the hunter presents his or her letter of invitation and the valid passport for hunting weapon. If the hunter does not have a passport for hunting weapon, he may ask for a license for the import (and export) of hunting weapon. It can be obtained from the Hungarian custom authorities, and the license is provided when the prospective guest hunter presents his or her valid letter of invitation (the applicant must be indicated by name), a hunting-gun license that is valid in the visitor's own country (or equivalent certification), presents his or her valid passport and pays a custom fee. The license is valid for 90 days, thus hunting-guns must not be kept in Hungary for a longer period.

Important! This license must be presented when leaving Hungary and it must be left in the office of the border station where you cross the border! When visitors fail to observe this regulation the Hungarian custom authorities will bring an action against them.

A valid hunter's liability insurance is necessary for the hunting license. The insurance can be easily obtained from the Hungarian Hunters' National Chamber.

2.1.2. The hunting license

The hunting license (see Appendix 2) gives the right to hunt on the hunting-grounds of those owners who are listed in the license. The license can be obtained either directly by the guest hunter, by the representative of the one who owns the shooting rights, or through the hunting company that has entered into a hunting contract with the guest hunter.

The hunting authority provides the hunter a hunting license if he or she has a written hunting contract, and a valid hunter's liability insurance. The hunter must pay a fee for the hunting license. The hunting license is valid for at least 30days but at the most of twelve months.

3. Hunting rules

Hunters must not use their hunting-weapon (or hunting-bow) before they unambiguously recognise the game for that they have the permission to hunt, and before they assess that their shooting will not violate the health and properties of others around them!

Hunters should be excluded from hunting if they are under the influence of alcohol or any other substance that reduce their ability to conduct hunting in a proper way, or if their state is inappropriate in other ways for safe hunting. Those people who fail to keep hunting rules and commands should be warned by the leader of the hunting, and in more serious cases they are excluded from the hunt. The leader of the hunt has to use unambiguous signals to mark the end of the drive. Hunters must not leave their hides or shooting stands during the hunt until a pre-defined time or until the end-signal of the drive. In dark, hunters have to continuously use pre-decided acoustic and light signals when they approach the position of other hunters. When hunters travel or stay in inhabited areas, travel by public transport and cross hunting grounds other than their own, their hunting weapons must be unloaded and carried in case.

3.1. Hunting-guns, ammunitions, and tools

The hunting law permits hunters in Hungary to kill game by one of the following three ways: (1) by hunting-gun that is legally accepted for hunting and has a barrel at least 45 cm long, (2) by hunting-bow, or (3) by a trained bird of prey. For big game the decree allows rifle ammunitions with at least 2500 Joule energy at muzzle (except roe deer, for that the minimum allowed energy of the ammunitions is 1000 Joule at the muzzle).

The use of lead pellet is forbidden after 15. August in wet habitats and their protective zone. If there is no protective zone, lead pellet is allowed to use for waterfowl hunting, but only on the frontier of the wet habitat, and the lead pellet should not fall back onto the prohibited area.

In Hungary, shotguns can be used to hunt only for small game (except wild boar that also can be killed by slugs). According to Hungarian practice the following pellet sizes are used for the different game species, that are also recommended for the use of our guest hunters:

  • hare 3.0-3.5 mm diameter
  • pheasant 3.0-3.5 mm diameter
  • ducks, coots 3.0-3.5 mm diameter
  • geese 3.5-4.0 mm diameter
  • small predatory mammals 3.5-4.0 mm diameter
  • partridge, woodcock, wood pigeon, collared dove 2.1-2.5 mm diameter

Only three cartridges can be inserted in semi-automatic shotguns. It is legal to hunt by hunting-bow in Hungary, however, for red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, roe deer and wild boar the required lower power limit of the bow is 222.7 Newton and the use of hunting edge is also required.

3.2. Tools considered illegal for hunting include:

  • automatic and semi-automatic rifles,
  • for big game (red deer, fallow deer, roe deer) illegal tools include shotguns (except wild boar, see above)
  • silencer
  • electric optical devices designed for night-time observations
  • electric acoustic devices that can be used for the deception of game
  • artificial scents and pheromones and live decoys to attract game
  • reflectors (except night hunting of wild boar for game damage reducing purposes, and night hunting of red fox, with the special license of the hunting authority)
  • poisoned and explosive arrows
  • cross-bow
  • any tools that differ from the hunting-bow and arrow described above

3.3. Who has the right to supervise the hunting activity

  • The hunting authority
  • The nature conservation authority
  • Nature conservation guard service
  • The police

4. Hunting methods

Guest hunters can participate in individual hunting or in collective hunting (with three or more participants) in Hungary.

4.1. Individual hunts:

  • stalking
  • shooting from hide
  • from horse carriage or sledge
  • individual small game hunting
  • shooting from boat
  • falconry During the course of individual hunt the guest hunter must be guided by an accompanying host hunter.

4.2. Collective hunting:

(During collective hunting a leader of the hunt must be appointed who supervises the hunting. For a safe hunting every hunter is bound to follow the instructions of the leader. If someone breaks the rules he also violates the order of the hunting.)

4.2.1 Collective hunting of big game:

  • mixed drive, or
    • driven hunt Beaters must wear a vest of obtrusive color ( orange, red or "luminous" green). Hunters must wear an orange or red strip on their hat or arm. All the hunters in the shooting stands obtain a hunting map.
    • Content of the hunting map:
  • Position of the hunters in the shooting stands
  • Position of the hunter in the shooting stand with the forbidden shooting ranges
  • Direction of the drive
  • Safety regulations
  • Accessibility of the leader of the hunting Hunters must stay in the shooting stands until the end of the hunting. After the end of the drive shooting is forbidden. The leader of the hunting must exclude the hunter if he or she shoots after the end of the drive.

4.2.2. Small game:

  • rough shooting, or
  • driven shoot

4.3. What hunting methods can be used for specific game?

Only individual hunting methods are permitted for the following game:

  • big game: red deer stag, fallow deer stag, roebuck, mouflon ram, sika deer. During individual hunts for big game hunters have to use binoculars.
    • small game: woodcock
    • Both individual and collective hunting methods are permitted for the following games:
  • big game: red deer (hind, calf), fallow deer (hind, calf), mouflon (ewe, lamb)
  • Roe deer doe and kid (only with the permission of the hunting authority) (these games can only be hunted by mixed drive and must not be hunted by driving!)
  • wild bore can be hunted also in driven hunt and mixed hunt regardless of sex and age
  • small game: rabbit, red fox, muskrat, raccoon dog, golden jackal, raccoon, bean goose, white-fronted goose, huntable ducks, collared dove, wood pigeon, hooded crow magpie, jay, polecat, stone marten, badger hare, pheasant, partridge

Winged game can be hunted only on wing, while hare in run (except for hunting with bow). For the hunting of waterfowl hunters are allowed to use only boats that are driven by oars. Only two person are allowed to be in the boat during hunting: the guest and the host hunters.

Big game can be shot only while standing (except wild boar). Hunters must search for the game even if there are no signs of injury. If there is any chance for finding the injured game, the search must be kept on. The injured game can be shot in run. An identifier system has recently been introduced for big game in Hungary. The host/leader hunter has to put these identifiers on the body of every big game at the time the game has been killed. The identifier containing the date and serial number has to be on the body or on the trophy of the animal when the guest hunters leave Hungary at the end of their hunting tour!

4.4. The following hunting methods are illegal in Hungary:

  • shooting from engine-powered vehicle or from any moving vehicle
  • shooting from underground ambush hole, except when hunting waterfowl
  • shooting from boats and other aquatic vehicle, except when hunting waterfowl
  • hunting with the use of reflectors (except for wild bore and fox)
  • shooting on red deer, fallow deer, roe deer and mouflon during the course of a driven hunt
  • hunting by pack of hounds

5. Rules of the use of hunting weapon

5.1. Important rules for handling the hunting weapon

  • Before the use of a hunting weapon it must be checked whether the gun is loaded, there is any foreign material in the barrel of the gun, and, in the case of shotgun with visible hammer, whether the hammer is triggered.
  • Loaded weapons must be safened, carried on shoulder or in hand, with muzzle directing upward and with untriggered hammer.
  • Hunting-guns must always be handled in a way that accidental firing cannot harm or damage properties of others.
  • Hunting-guns can only be unsafened (i.e. riffle trigger fastened) immediately before a shooting.
  • If the weapon is not fired, then it must be safened and rifle trigger  unfastened immediately.
  • It is forbidden to follow the game with the weapon across the line of beaters or hunters.
  • Hunters must not leave their hunting weapon unguarded.

5.2. Rules for loading and unloading the hunting weapon

The hunting-gun is loadable when

  • the hunter is in his or her shooting stand
    • the drive has already started . or when loading is permitted by the accompanying host hunter
    • The hunters must unload their hunting-guns
  • when the drive has been finished
  • before the hunters go up or come down the high seat
  • before leaving the shooting stand or hide
  • before getting into a vehicle
  • while crossing obstacles in the field (e.g. fence, ditch)
  • when the hunting-gun breaks down
  • when unloading is required by the leader of the hunt or by the accompanying host hunter

6. Huntable species and hunting seasons

Since most of the problems occur during individual hunting of winged game, - mainly during the hunting of waterfowl - we give here some help to the identification of those huntable and protected species that may be difficult to identify in the field. At the last part of our hunting guide we provide a description of each huntable and protected species in order to avoid accidental killing of protected game.

Please read carefully the information regarding hunting seasons (Appendix 3) and the additional information provided in the footnotes (1-8). The Ministry of Agriculture and Regional development (in harmony with the Ministry of Environment and Water) keep the right to change these rules!

7. Trophy judgement

In Hungary, hunters have to submit the following trophies for judgement: the antler of red deer stag, fallow deer stag and roe deer buck; the horn of mouflon ram; the tusk of wild boar if its size average exceeds 16 cm. Trophies have to be submitted for judgement within 30 days after the killing of the game. The trophy can be judged by the judgement committee of the local hunting inspectorate (in each county). The hunting authority certifies the submission, judgement and export of the trophy by providing a certification with the serial number of the identifier, a signature and a stamp.

The hunters have to show this permission and the invoice to the custom authority when they leave the country.

The hunting authority provides a medal and a certificate to the hunter if the quality of the trophy reaches the medal-threshold and the game was killed in proper way.

The hunter must pay a trophy judgement fee for the trophy judgement at the time of refereeing.

Trophies of high international credit (CIC point) have to be submitted by the hunting authority to the ministry for further judging, in order to declare that the trophy is a national value. Trophies have to be submitted for this second judgement within eight days after the first judgement. Minimum CIC points when hunters have to submit the trophy for further judgement: red deer 240 CIC point fallow deer 200 CIC point mouflon 220 CIC point roe deer 170 CIC point wild boar 130 CIC point

The hunting authority provides a duplicate of trophy to the hunter in that case when the trophy is a national value. Then the ministry organizes the display of the trophy.

8. The export of the trophy and the killed game to abroad

The host office provides the documentation needed to the import from Hungary, but visitors are encouraged to check the rules that regulate the transport of the trophies in their own countries!

8.1. To the export of the trophies (antler, horn, tusk, feather) the followings are required:

EU:

  • the receipt provided by the host office that organized the hunting tour
  • certification of the trophy-judgement
  • a licence provided by the hunting authority to export trophies derived from a perished game or indirect capturing as well as the fallen antlers

Non EU:

  • the receipt provided by the host office that organized the hunting tour
  • Uniform Costumes Clearance (for the citizens of EU countries) . official veterinary certification about the origin of the trophy/meat
  • certification of the trophy-judgement provided by the hunting authority
  • a licence provided by the hunting authority to export trophies derived from a perished game or indirect capturing as well as the fallen antlers

For the transport, marketing, export and import of winged game the feathering of the given species must be preserved in order to identify the species.

The marketing, commercial transport, commercial keeping and dealing with alive and perished or shot winged game (garganey, goldeneye, teal, pochard, coot, collared dove, magpie, jay, hooded crow, bean goose, white-fronted goose and woodcock) and their spin-offs or recognizable parts is forbidden.

8.2. Export of meat and skin:

EU export: maximum one big game and a number of small games which is considered as personal use. Non EU export: the receipt, Uniform Costumes Clearance, official veterinary certification

8.3. The transport of killed game over the area of Hungary, when it is a protected species in Hungary

By regulation of the § 43. of Act No. LIII 1996. on nature conservation (section (2) i)), permission is needed from environment and nature conservation and water authorities, closest to the place of entry and departure, to the transport , export or import of species that is protected in Hungary or that is included in international agreements. For species included in the Washingtonian Agreement (CITES), only those animal or plant species can be transported over the country, which previously obtained a licence specified by the Agreement. If the shipment has such an international license, a separate Hungarian license is not needed. If the killed game (trophy) has no such licence, the International Nature Conservation Agreement Office of the Ministry of Environmental and Water may confiscate the shipment, by the regulation of 271/2002. (XII.20).Special regulations are relevant to the import to the EU of species included in the Agreement.

9. Important huntable and protected birds

It is difficult to recognise some birds in the field, especially when visibility is weak and birds move quickly (e.g. during hunting waterfowl at dusk or dawn). This brief guide provides descriptions of field characters, voice and behaviour that may help the identification of some confusable species.

9.1. Species that can easily be confused with protected species

Bean goose (Anser fabalis)

It is one of our large "grey geese". Frequent visitor in Hungary between September and March. Browner and generally darker than any other species of "grey goose". At a distance head and neck appear black, contrasting distinctly with pale, buff-brown chest. Flanks and belly brown, with indistinct bars; vent and under tail-coverts white; legs and feet orange-yellow. In juvenile, plumage duller, with underparts mottled and upperparts with diffuse pattern. Their voice in flight sounds as loud "ang-ang". Outside breeding season, frequents the same habitats as greylag goose i.e. visits agricultural fields for daytime feeding and spent the night on lakes or other wetlands. In bad visual conditions bean goose can most easily be identified by their voice and slow  wing-beats.

White-fronted goose (Anser albifrons)

Smaller than the bean goose, with fast flight. Adult differs from greylag goose and bean goose in large, white patch at base of bill, irregular black bars on breast, and orange legs. Upper flanks edged white, forming distinct line; vent and under tail-coverts white. Juveniles without white forehead, black bars on belly absent, plumage browner and more mottled. Their voice in flight is a high-pitched and two-syllable note: "lillik" or "lilili". Outside breeding season, frequents large lowland pastures, meadows, marshes, or arable fields under clover and cereals. They can be find in greatest number in the eastern part of Hungary, mostly during autumn and winter.

Common teal (Anas crecca)

In all ducks, there are differences between the breeding plumage and the winter plumage. During breeding males have a bright and conspicuous plumage, but during winter males, females and juveniles are alike having a similar brownish plumage. This similarity may make it difficult to recognise them. Most ducks have a visible, colourful patch on their wings (speculum), that can be used for identification throughout the year. It is especially helpful in the identification of breeding birds. The common teal is the smallest European duck. Male with conspicuous, horizontal white band on shoulders, chestnut brown head with broad green eye patch which extends back to the nape, yellow-buff patch on either side of black undertail; upperparts and flanks vermiculated grey, underparts white,  breast cream with dark spots. At long distance male appears grey with dark head. Both sexes with speculum half metallic-green and half black, bordered by whitish bars at front and back. Female with mottled brown upperparts and flanks, darker crown; underparts spotted in summer, whiter in winter. Very agile on the wing, flies rapidly and erratically in compact flocks. Male has a low voice of "kri-kri-kri", female a high, sharp "queck". In breeding season prefers moorland, heath pools and bogs, often nesting well away from water. Outside breeding season on all sorts of fresh, brackish or saline waters. They are in Hungary from late summer to the beginning of the winter.

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Male with glossy dark green head, small white collar, purplish-brown breast, vermiculated grey body, dark brown centre of back, black upper- and undertail-coverts, and white rest of tail, but two central tail feathers black and curled. Female is brown, mottled, spotted, and streaked with blackish. Both sexes with broad blue or purple speculum, edged with black and white both at front and rear, and orange legs.

Female produces a deep quacking; male has a much more subdued, higher-pitched "quek", or "raehb". Adapted to a wide range of habitats and very tolerant to human presence or disturbance. One of the most important water games. Their identification is easy due to its familiarity to most hunters.

Garganey (Anas querquedula)

Only a little larger than common teal but with more slender neck, flatter crown, and more straight bill. Male in flight shows pale blue forewing and sharp demarcation of brown breast from vermiculated greyish flanks and white belly. Adult male with broad white stripe extending from eye to nape; speculum glossy dark green, bordered with white in front and behind. Female resembles female teal but paler, with whiter throat, more distinct dark eye stripe; in flight with greyish forewing and indistinct greenish-brown speculum. Garganeis are mostly found in flocks. Their flight is similar to that of the common teal. Male has a characteristic low, crackling call "krek-krek" and female a short "quack"; they can unambiguously recognised by heir voice.

Pochard (Aythya ferina)

Male with uniform chestnut-red head and neck, contrasting with vermiculated light grey body and black breast, under- and upper-tail. In flight with broad, pale grey stripe across entire upper-wing, contrasting with dark grey forewing. Female yellowish-brown, with dark brown crown and hoary areas round base of bill, on cheeks and throat; back, scapulars and sides vermiculated grey-brown. Generally silent, their voice is not suitable for identification. In the breeding season, they occur on open water of lakes; outside the breeding season, gather on open, preferably fresh waters. Their flight is clumsy, and they often fly close to the water surface.

Goldeneye(Bucephala clangula)

They are winter visitors in Hungary, where they usually can be found on large lakes and rivers. Male boldly black-and-white; neck and underparts white; back and tail black, with black streaks on scapulars and edge of flanks. In male "triangular" head is black glossed green with a circular white patch between eye and black bill. In flight wings are black with a conspicuous, broad white square on inner half extending almost to the front edge of the wing and partly broken by black line extending inwards from primary coverts. Female with chocolate brown head without white patch, obscure whitish collar, mottled blue-grey upperparts, black rump, and white underparts. Generally silent, but wing feathers produce a distinctive voice when flying, which can help hunters in identification.

Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola)

The only huntable wader species (Limicola) in Hungary. A plump woodland bird, usually seen as a russet round-winged owl-like bird flying away between the trees. Upperparts rufous brown, marbled with dark spots and stripes. Underparts buffish with fine dense barring. Legs rather short, but bill long, flesh-coloured, with a dark tip. Large eyes set far back on head. Distinctive display flight in spring, when males fly above the tree tops at twilight and make low grunting and loud sneezing sounds. Usually silent, but during display flights males make a low grunting "brrrr brrrr brrrr" and a loud "tsissick". They inhabit a variety of moist woodlands with plenty of undergrowth. In bad visual conditions at dawn and dusk hunters have to be careful with their identification to avoid shooting protected species such as owls, some ducks and bats.

Wood pigeon(Columba palumbus)

Largest pigeon in the region. Plumage grey, with dark flight feathers and dark tail band. Whole chest deep vinous pink. Most obvious characters are the white spots on the sides of the neck, bordered with shiny green and pink, and the white crescentic bar on each upperwing. On feeding grounds often in large flocks, often with other pigeons and doves.

Collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Differs from turtle dove in slightly larger size, narrow black half-collar at the back of neck and different colour of body. Upperparts drab, almost uniform pale grey-brown; in flight shoulders blue-grey; head and underparts paler and greyer, with a slight tinge of vinous-pink, especially on breast of male. Tail shows white in outer feathers if spread; seen from below, at rest or in flight, has a distinctive pattern with the distal half white and basal half dark. They are hunted mostly on foraging ground, and hunters have to carefully recognise the bird before shooting to avoid confusion with protected turtle dove or stock dove.

9.2. Protected species that can easily be confused with huntable species

Lesser white-fronted goose(Anser erythropus)

Smaller, shorter-necked, and shorter-billed than white-fronted goose, with considerably larger white front reaching onto top of head. Body and rest of head uniform dusky brown; underparts with delicate banding and with few black blotches on belly and lower flanks. Small bill bright pink, with white nail; legs and feet orange; swollen yellow ring around eye visible at short distance. Closed wings extend beyond tail. Juvenile without white front and without black bars on underparts. Undisturbed white-fronted geese fly usually in V-shaped flocks, while lesser white-fronted geese fly in unorganised flocks with high rate of wing-beats. Call a distinctive note, higher-pitched and squeakier than white-front, sounding like "vivivivi". Highly endangered worldwide, thus hunters have to be especially careful to avoid shooting lesser white-fronts. In Hungary, they occur most often eastward from the Tisza river, and very rare in the western part of the country. Thus hunters may expect problems with their identification when hunting in Eastern Hungary. Nature conservation value: 1 000 000 HUF.

Greylag goose (Anser anser)

A large, big-headed, thick-billed, heavy "grey goose". Greylag differs from other "grey geese" in absence of black on bright-orange bill, flesh-coloured legs, pale grey fore-wing and rump, head and neck not being darker than body, and underparts virtually without dark bars. Their voice like a farm-yard goose. They can most easily be confused with been goose. By night the two species can reliable be separated by their voice. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Wigeon (Anas penelope)

Male with chestnut-red head and yellow-buff forehead and crown, vermiculated grey back and flanks, pink-brown breast, and black under-tail; square-cut patch on underside pure white. Large white area on forewing conspicuous in flight; speculum dark green and broadly bordered with black. Female differs from female mallard in smaller size, smaller grey bill, more rounded head, pointed tail, and more rufous plumage. Speculum dusky or blackish with green gloss and enclosed between white wing-bars. Underparts white. In flight shows characteristic white forewing and belly, and pointed tail. Male produces a distinctive, musical, far-carrying whistling note: "weeuw". Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Gadwall (Anas strepera)

A difficult species for identification, rather similar to female and non-breeding male mallard. Smaller and more slender than mallard, with more abrupt forehead. Both sexes with white speculum which is sometimes visible at rest and conspicuous in flight, bordered at front by black band and chestnut wing coverts. Male uniform dark grey with black upper and under tail-coverts. Female has a "quack" like female mallard but less loud and coarse; male has a deep, nasal croack: "nhek". Prefer fairly shallow, standing or slow-flowing open water with good cover. Rare in Hungary. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Pintail (Anas acuta)

Slender, long-necked dabbling duck with pointed tail. Male with chocolate brown head and upper neck, conspicuous white neck and breast, and long pointed tail. Upperparts and flanks grey. Female difficult to distinguish from similarly coloured females of Mallard and Gadwall but has slender body and neck, pointed tail, indistinct speculum and grey bill. In flight, white trailing edge on secondaries. Usually silent. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Shoveler (Anas clypeata)

Differs from all other ducks by very large, spatulate bill. Upperparts of male largely black and white, with shining green head, chestnut belly and flanks, white breast and pale blue fore-wing. In flight or in the water conspicuous pattern of black-white-black-white-black. Female brownish like female mallard, but with less distinct head pattern. Swims with fore-parts deeply sunk and heavy bill inclined downwards. In flight the disproportionate size of bill make the wings appear set far back. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Ferruginous Duck(Aythya nyroca)

Somewhat smaller and more delicate than tufted duck. Male with rich chestnut head, neck, and breast; sides and flanks paler; upperparts black-brown and wings glossed dull green; conspicuous white undertail; belly and eye white, legs black. In flight with conspicuous, broad white band along whole length of hind wing. Female duller and browner than male and with brown eyes. Generally silent; male has a low, grating wheeze. Prefers secluded pools and lagoons rich in submerged and floating vegetation and fringed by dense stands of emergent plants. Highly endangered worldwide, hunters have to be especially careful to avoid shooting this species. Nature conservation value: 500 000 HUF.

Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)

In male pure white flanks and belly contrast boldly with black of rest of plumage; long, black, pendant crest at back of head, but not always obvious at a distance. Female dark brown on upperparts, reddish brown on cheeks and neck; flanks and sides yellow-brown, belly red-brown, and breast dark brown flecked with yellow-brown; crest rudimentary. In winter, female has white belly and white patch around base of bill. Both sexes have broad, white band along entire length of hind wing in flight. In winter they stay on larger rivers, reservoirs and lakes, and they are often in mixed flocks with goldeneyes. The two species can be separated in flight by their distinct wing bands: tufted ducks have a band along the entire length of the wing while goldeneyes have a square-shaped white speculum. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Quail (Coturnix coturnix)

A tiny partridge-like bird which is usually detected by characteristic call of male. Body mainly sandy, barred with dark brown and pale buff above; underparts paler and flanks streaked with buff and white. Crown dark brown with buff streak down centre; buff stripe from above eye down to base of neck. Male has buffish or chestnut throat bordered by black band and with black central stripe, the last being absent in the female. They are usually seen in flight, when they are to escape from the vicinity of hunters or their dogs. Usually solitary, larger groups are formed only on migration, e.g. before crossing the sea. Due to their small size they cannot be confused with partridge, and they can be recognised well even in flight. Characteristic, tri-syllabic call of male is a liquid "pitypalatty", which is repeated often. In the breeding season essentially a bird of agricultural country, but it occurs also on grasslands and steppe. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago)

A medium sized wader, about one third of a woodcock. Usually stays in cover and hard to see. Most important features are the very long straight bill, the wild zig-zag flight when flushed and the call. Mainly brown and russet with black lines; head with long black and buff lines and buff lines also prominent on dark back. Breast finely streaked, underparts white. Tail barred with rufous and black, with some white on the sides. Flocks during migration, favouring marshes, wet meadows etc., but is often only seen when flushed. In Hungary they prefer open habitat where woodcock does usually not occur. When flushed its voice is a hoarse "chek-chek". During display flight in spring a persistent "chikke-chikkechikke" and lamb-like trilling "whewhewhewhewhe", produced by the outer tail feathers of the male in diving flight. Often displaying at night. In Hungary hunters can most often see common snipes during the hunting of waterfowl. Woodcock is not huntable, however, during the hunting season of waterfowls, which decreases the chance to shoot the protected common snipe as a misidentified woodcock. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Stock dove (Columba oenas)

Smaller than wood pigeon and larger than collared dove. Plumage mainly dark grey, with shiny green area on side of neck and a vinous chest. Wing with two short and indistinct black bars; tail bordered by a black band. Primaries dark. Underwings grey; wings more rounded than wood pigeon. No white in plumage. Collard dove differs from stock dove in their pale grey body coloration, long and white-banded tail, and the presence of their dark collar. Doves and pigeons are mostly hunted at the end of summer and at the beginning of autumn, when these birds stay in flocks on arable feeding grounds. Thus it may be difficult to separate protected species from the huntable ones in mixed flocks, and experience and strong self-control are essential for unambiguous identification. Nature conservation value: 50 000 HUF.

Turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur)

Darker and smaller than collared dove. Feathers on back dark with broad chestnut edges, giving scaly appearance. Head grey, chest deep pink, upperwings with grey field and dark flight feathers, tail dark with white rear border, especially obvious from below. Underside of wing grey. A spot on each side of neck formed by fine black and white lines. Flight fast and straight, with jerky wing beats, like collared dove. In flight this species can be distinguished from collard dove by their shorter tail and by more ornamented plumage. Often feeds in mixed flocks with collared dove on arable land, and hunters confuse the two species most often in these mixed flocks. Nature conservation value: 10 000 HUF.

Appendix 1.

Határátkelohely Vámparancsnoksága részére

MEGHÍVÓLEVÉL (EINLADUNG / INVITATION / LETTERA D' INVITO)

. . . . . . /2006

Igazoljuk, hogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . külföldi bérvadász . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . közvetítésével vadászat céljából

szerzodést kötött a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vadásztársasággal, mint vadászatra jogosulttal.

Kérjük, hogy számára a fegyver és loszer behozatalát engedélyezni szíveskedjenek.

A vendéget tájékoztattuk, hogy a fegyver Magyarországról való kiléptetése az o egyéni felelossége.

Budapest, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (aláírás, pecsét)

Appendix 2.

Appendix 3.

Hunting seasons

a) Big game:

Red deer stag, mature for shooting: 1 September-31 October

 

 

 

-
stag, culling, 1 September-31 January
-

 

hind, calf 1 September-28 February

Fallow deer stag, mature for shooting: 1 October-31 December

 

 

 

-
stag, culling 1 October-31 January
-
hind, calf 1 October-28 February
-

 

doe, kid 1 October-28 February

Roe deer buck: 15 April-30 September

Mouflon ram, ewe, lamb: 1 September-28 February

Wild boar

 

 

 

-
boar, pig, piglet (*6) over the whole year
-

 

sow 1 May-31 January

Sika deer stag

- hind, roe, calf 1 September-31 December

ba) Small game

Hare 1 September-1 December Rabbit 1 September-31 January Pheasant cock1 October-28 February

- hen (*1) without hunting season Partridge (*2) 1 October-31 December Bean goose, white-fronted goose (*3) 1 October-31 January Mallard, common teal, coot (*4) 1 September-31 January Pochard, goldeneye (*4) 1 October-31 January Garganey without hunting season Woodcock (*5) 1 March-10 April Collared dove 15 August-28 February Wood pigeon 15 August-31 October

bb) Other small game

Red fox, muskrat, raccoon dog, raccoon over the whole year Golden jackal, badger 1 June-28February Polecat, stone marten 1 September-28 February Hooded crow, magpie (*8) 1 July-28 February Jay(*8) 1 August-28 February

The following complementary measures must be taken into consideration during hunting:

  1. Hen pheasants can be hunted if released from breeding stations. A separate license of rearing and releasing is needed from the hunting authority for hunting hen pheasants. The license must include the conditions of hen release, the extent and conditions of exploit and also the hunting range measured from the releasing site.
  2. Partridges can be hunted if released from breeding stations, only in justified cases. A separate license of rearing and releasing is needed from the hunting authority for hunting partridges. The license must include the conditions of hen release, the extent of exploit (maximum 40%) and also the hunting range measured from the releasing site
  3. The hunting season of been goose and white-fronted goose in counties Hajdú-Bihar, Békés, Csongrád and the Tiszántúl part of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok is differing. It starts 1. December and ends 31. January. Four individuals of bean goose and white-fronted goose can be killed per hunter and per day.
  4. From natural stocks, eight individuals of mallard, garganey, teal, pochard, goldeneye, coot can be killed per hunter and per day. Ducks released from breeding stations can be shot out of season without daily bag limit.
  5. Woodcock can only be shot in roding. Four individuals can be killed per hunter per day.
  6. Boar is defined as piglet up to 20 kg carcass weight, as pig up to 50 kg carcass weight and sow exceeding 50 kg carcass weight.
    1. Capturing is allowed for red deer stag, fallow deer stag, roe deer buck, mouflon ram and sika deer stag over
    2. the whole year, for females and other game during their hunting seasons.
  7. Hooded crow, magpie, and jay can be hunted on small game hunting fields during their breeding seasons with special license from the hunting authority.

WET HABITATS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE REGARDING THE NESTING AND MIGRATION OF WATERFOWL

TK=Landscape Protection Area; TT=Nature Conservation Area

  1. Fertő.Hanság Nemzeti Park területéből a Fertő-tavi rész
  2. Tatai Öreg-tó TT
  3. Velencei Madárrezervátum TT és a Dinnyési Fertő TT
  4. Pacsmagi-tavak TT
  5. A Balaton-felvidéki Nemzeti Park területéből a Kisbalaton régi és új tározók
  6. Balaton
  7. Duna.Dráva Nemzeti Park területéből a Gemenci és a Béda-karapancsai rész
  8. Ócsai TK
  9. Kiskunsági Nemzeti Park területéből a Kiskunsági szikes tavak, az Izsáki Kolon-tó, az Orgoványi rétek és a Tiszaalpári rét
  10. Pusztaszeri TK-ból a szegedi Fehér-tó, a Tisza labodári és saséri területe, a Csaj-tó, a Baksi nagylegelő és a Büdösszék-tó, Mártély
  11. A Körös.Maros Nemzeti Park területéből a Kardoskúti Fehér-tó, a Biharugai- és Begécsi-halastavak és a Sző-rét
  12. Hortobágyi Nemzeti Park
  13. Csondrádbokrosi Sós-tó
  14. Szaporcai Ó-Dráva meder TT
  15. Felső-Tisza (a Tisza hullámtere Tokajtól az országhatárig)
  16. Tokaj-Bodrogzugi TK
  17. Rétszilas
  18. Ipoly-völgy,
  19. Böddi-szék

WET HABITATS OF SIGNIFICANT DOMESTIC IMPORTANCE REGARDING THE NESTING AND MIGRATION OF WATERFOWL

    1. Sárvíz-völgye TK
    2. Péter-tavi Madárrezervátum TT
    3. Rácalmástól az országhatárig valamennyi Duna-zátony területe
    4. Vértesi TK-ból a Csíkvarsai-rét
    5. Pellérdi-halastavak
    6. Sumonyi-halastavak
    7. Baláta-tó TT
    8. Boronka-melléki TK
    9. Borsodi-Mezőség TK
    10. Gátéri Fehér-tó
    11. Hevesi Füves Puszták TK
    12. Kecskeri puszta TT
    13. Kesznyéteni TK
    14. Körös.Maros Nemzeti Park területéből a cserebökényi-puszták a pitvarosi-puszták, szabadkígyósi-puszták
    15. Közép-tiszai TK
    16. Nagybereki Fehér-víz TT
    17. Sárosfői-halastavak TT
    18. Sárréti TK
    19. Szatmár-Beregi TK
    20. Szigetközi TK
    21. Tiszatelek-Tiszaberceli Ártér TT
    22. Tiszavasvári Fehér-szik TT
    23. Tiszadorogmai Göbe-erdő TT

 

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